Jeff hates gym class. It's not that he minds playing soccer or basketball
or any of the other activities. But he does dread going into the locker
room at the end of class and showering in front of his friends. Although
the other guys' bodies are growing and changing, his body seems to
be stuck at a younger age. He's shorter than most of the other guys
in his grade, and his voice hasn't deepened at all. It's embarrassing
to still look like a little kid.
Abby knows what it's like to feel different, too. The bikini tops
that her friends fill out lie flat on her. Most of them have their
periods, too, and she hasn't had even a sign of one. Abby doesn't
even really have to shave her legs or underarms, although she does
it just to be like everyone else.
Both Jeff and Abby wonder and worry, "What's wrong with me?"
What Is Delayed Puberty?
Puberty is the time when your body grows from a child's to an adult's.
You'll know that you are going through puberty by the way that your
body changes. If you're a girl, you'll notice that your breasts
develop and your pubic hair grows, that you have a growth spurt,
and that you get your period (menstruation). The overall shape of
your body will probably change, too - your hips will widen and your
body will become curvier. If you're a guy, you'll start growing
pubic and facial hair, have a growth spurt, and your testicles and
penis will get larger. Your body shape will also begin to change
- your shoulders will widen and your body will become more muscular.
These changes are caused by the sex hormones (testosterone in guys
and estrogen in girls) that your body begins producing in much larger
amounts than before.
Puberty takes place over a number of years, and the age at which
it starts and ends varies widely. It generally begins somewhere
between the ages of 7 and 13 for girls, and somewhere between the
ages of 9 and 15 for guys, although it can be earlier or later for
some people. This wide range in age is normal, and it's why you
may develop several years earlier (or later) than most of your friends.
Sometimes, however, teens pass this normal age range for puberty
without showing any signs of body changes. This is called delayed
What Causes Delayed Puberty?
There are several reasons why puberty may be delayed. Most often,
it's simply a pattern of growth and development in a family; a guy
or girl may find that his or her parent, uncle, aunt, brothers,
sisters, or cousins developed later than usual, too. This is called
constitutional delay (or being a late bloomer), and it usually doesn't
require any kind of treatment. These teens will eventually develop
normally, just later than most of their peers.
Medical problems can also cause delays in puberty. Some people
with chronic illnesses like diabetes, cystic fibrosis, kidney disease,
or even asthma may go through puberty at an older age because their
illnesses can make it harder for their bodies to grow and develop.
Proper treatment and better control of many of these conditions
can help make delayed puberty less likely to occur.
A person who's malnourished - without enough food to eat or without
the proper nutrients - may also develop later than peers who eat
a healthy, balanced diet. For example, teens suffering from anorexia
nervosa, an eating disorder, often lose so much weight that their
bodies can't develop properly. Girls who are extremely active in
sports may also be late developers because their level of exercise
keeps them so lean. Girls' bodies require a certain amount of fat
before puberty and menstruation can occur.
Delayed puberty can also occur because of problems in the pituitary
or thyroid glands, which produce hormones important for body growth
and development. In other cases, there are abnormalities in the
chromosomes (which contain the body's construction plans) that interfere
with normal growth processes. Turner syndrome occurs when one of
a female's two X chromosomes is abnormal or missing. This causes
problems with growth and with the development of the ovaries and
production of sex hormones. Women who have untreated Turner syndrome
are shorter in height than normal, are infertile, and may have other
Males with Klinefelter syndrome are born with an extra X chromosome
(XXY instead of XY). This condition can slow sexual development.
What Do Doctors Do?
The good news is that if there is a problem, doctors usually can
help teens with delayed puberty to develop more normally. So if
you are worried that you're not developing as you should, you should
ask your parents to make an appointment with your doctor.
In addition to doing a physical examination, the doctor will ask
you about any concerns and symptoms you have, your past health,
your family's health, any medications you're taking, any allergies
you may have, and other issues like growth patterns of your family
members. This is called the medical history. He or she will chart
your growth to see if your growth pattern points to a problem. He
or she may also order blood tests to check for thyroid, pituitary,
chromosomal, or other problems. You may also have a "bone age"
X-ray, which allows the doctor to see whether your bones are maturing
In many cases, the doctor will be able to reassure you that there's
no underlying physical problem; you're just a bit later than average
in developing. If the doctor does find a problem, however, he or
she might also refer you to a pediatric endocrinologist (pronounced:
en-doe-krih-nah-luh-jist), a doctor who specializes in treating
kids and teens who have growth problems, or other specialist for
further tests or treatment.
Even after the doctor has reassured them that they are normal,
some teens who are late developers may have a difficult time waiting
for the changes of puberty to finally get going. In some cases,
doctors may offer teens a short course (usually a few months) of
treatment with hormone medications to get the changes of puberty
started. Usually, when the treatment is stopped a few months later,
the teen's own hormones will take over from there to complete the
process of puberty.
Dealing With Delayed Puberty
It can be really hard to watch your friends grow and develop when
the same thing's not happening to you. You may feel like you're
never going to catch up. People at school may joke about your small
size or your flat chest. Even when the doctor or your parents reassure
you that things will be OK eventually - and even when you believe
they're right - it's difficult to wait for something that can affect
how you feel about yourself.
If you're feeling depressed or having school or emotional problems
related to delays in your growth and development, ask your mom or
dad, your doctor, or another trusted adult to find a counselor or
therapist whom you can talk to. This person can help you sort out
your feelings and suggest ways to cope with them.
Delayed puberty can be difficult for a teen to accept and deal
with - but it's a problem that usually gets solved, one way or another.
Ask for help if you have any concerns about your development. And
remember that in most cases you will eventually catch up with your