What Is It?
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible rubber
that sits over the cervix (the area between the vagina and the uterus).
Does It Work?
The diaphragm keeps sperm from entering the uterus by blocking the
cervix. For added protection, spermicide is put into the bowl of
the diaphragm and along its edges before inserting the diaphragm
high into the vagina so it covers the cervix.
The diaphragm is inserted up to 6 hours before having sex. More
spermicide must be used each time you have sex while wearing the
diaphragm. After sex, the diaphragm must be left in for at least
6 hours, but no longer than 24 hours. The diaphragm can be removed
by placing a finger into the vagina to pull it out.
After each time the diaphragm is removed, it must be washed, rinsed,
and dried, then stored in its case. It should not be dusted with
baby powder and should never be used with oil-based lubricants such
as mineral oil, petroleum jelly, or baby oil. These substances can
cause the rubber to become brittle and crack. Other vaginal creams,
such as yeast medicines, can also damage the rubber.
A diaphragm should be replaced every 2 years.
How Well Does It Work?
Over the course of 1 year, 16 out of 100 typical couples who rely
on the diaphragm to prevent pregnancy will have an accidental pregnancy.
Of course, these are average figures and the chance of getting pregnant
depends on whether you use this method correctly and every time
you have sex.
In general, how well each type of birth control method works depends
on a lot of things. In the case of a diaphragm, the two most important
things to be sure of are that it fits correctly and that is used
every time a couple has sexual intercourse.
Abstinence (the decision to not have sex) is the only method that
always prevents pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Protection Against STDs
The diaphragm does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases
(STDs). For those having sex, condoms must always be used along
with the diaphragm to protect against STDs.
Possible Side Effects
Most women who use a diaphragm have no problems. The side effects
that some women have include:
- Spermicides may irritate the vagina and surrounding skin.
- Strong odors or vaginal discharge may appear if the diaphragm
is left in too long.
- The rubber or latex in the diaphragm may cause an allergic reaction
(this is rare).
- Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare complication.
Who Uses It?
Young women who can take responsibility for sex in advance use
diaphragms. You must also always have a supply of spermicide if
you choose to use a diaphragm. In addition, the diaphragm is good
for anyone who wants to have sex during her period - the diaphragm
catches the blood before it leaves the vagina. The diaphragm isn't
good for anyone who is uncomfortable or uneasy with the thought
of reaching into her vagina.
How Do You Get It?
A doctor must fit a girl with a diaphragm. During a pelvic exam
the doctor will measure a girl's vagina and then determine which
size of diaphragm is right for her. The doctor or nurse will then
teach her how to insert and remove the diaphragm. Some doctors may
even ask a girl to practice at home and then come in while wearing
the diaphragm to check that she has done it right. A diaphragm that's
inserted incorrectly can result in pregnancy.
During the annual exam, the doctor will check that the diaphragm
still fits correctly. The diaphragm may not fit correctly if a girl
has gained or lost 10 pounds, had a baby, had an abortion, or was
fitted when she was a virgin and she is now having sex.
How Much Does It Cost?
A diaphragm usually costs about $30 to $50. It should be replaced
every 2 years. There is also the cost of the doctor's visit and
a fitting fee. Many health insurance plans cover these costs and
family planning clinics (such as Planned Parenthood) charge much
less. In addition, the cost of spermicide is about $0.25 per use.